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Commonly Used Git Commands With Samples

January 27th, 2015 Leave a comment Go to comments

Git is a powerful version control system. One big differentiator from traditional version control systems is that it’s fully ditributed. In other words, there is no central repository and everyone can have a full clone of everything.

There are many articles and tutorials about GIT already. A while back, I also wrote a few articles on the Java APIs to the JGit implementation. This post is simply a collection of some commands that I use on daily basis. This is just for my quick reference or cheat sheet and nothing more. If you find it’s helpful, it’s great.

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# Set the user name so that no need to type it
git config --global user.name "Steve Jin"
# Set the author email address
$ git config --global user.email steve@example.com
# Configure the default editor to be emacs. Another popular choice is vi or vim.
git config --global core.editor emacs
# Configure the template for commit message
git config --global commit.template ~/.gitmessage.txt
# Clone a repository
$ git clone http://example.com/doublecloud/vijava.git
# Create a new repository
$ git init
# Create a new branch "fix123" and check out from origin/master branch into it.
$ git checkout -b fix123 origin/master
# Switch from current branch to branch fix321
$ git checkout fix321
# Add all the changed file into staging. Alternatively, one or file paths can be added.
$ git add .
# Add one specific file named doublecloud.py into staging for later commit. More files can be added in one line.
$ git add doublecloud.py
# Check the current status of this branch: what's staged, what's changed but not staged
$ git status
# Commit the staged changes into repository
$ git commit
# Update the latest commit with new changes. The commit number will be different.
$ git commit --amend
# Show what is inside a commit
$ git show 8f79c86c7b089d5583c653f1e879e41f2ff0084f
# Fetch changes from remote
$ git fetch
# Rebase the current branch with its tracking branch, which should be done before push to remote.
$ git rebase
# Pull changes from remote and merge them. Not used as often as git fetch + git rebase
$ git pull
# Push the changes from local fix123 branch to the remote master branch
git push origin fix123:master
# Show the commit history of current branch
git log
# Show the commit history with one line for each commit
$ git log --oneline
# Show what's new in local branch fix123 that has not yet pushed to origin/master branch
$ git log origin/master..fix123
# Show short version of git log
$ git shortlog
# List all the branches with # indicate the current branch
$ git branch
# List more info about branches with tracking branches
$ git branch -vv
# Set the tracking branch as origin/master for the branch fix123
$ git branch --set-upstream fix123 origin/master
# Delete the branch fix123. Use -d switch for safer checking
$ git branch -D fix123
# Edit the history of a few commits
$ git rebase -i origin/master
# Show the diff between working directory and HEAD
$ git diff
# Show the set of files changed in a commit
$ git diff-tree --name-only -r HEAD
# Show the diff of same file but different versions on two branches
$ git diff branch1 branch2 -- doublecloud.py
# Pick a specific commit and apply it on top of current branch
$ git cherry-pick 259df0b6100b507df9c665128cff0159999d5b4c
# Clean the current working directory. Remove --dry-run when you have doublechecked
$ git clean -d -f --dry-run
# Move a file or directory from one location to another
$ git mv doublecloud.properties conf/
# Add a new tag called v1.0 
$ git tag -a v1.0 -m 'First public release'
# List tags
$ git tag -l
# Check out a tagged version v1.0 into a new branch
$ git checkout -b fix1.0 v1.0
# See change history of a list per line. The 2nd shows only line 1 to 5.
$ git blame <file-name>
$ git blame -L 1,5 <file-name>
# Remove un-tracked files
$ git clean -f
# Change the tracking branch to origin/master
$ git branch --track [new_branch] origin/master
# Combine last 2 commit - need to pick commands in editor
$ git rebase -i HEAD~2
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