Commonly Used Git Commands With Samples
Git is a powerful version control system. One big differentiator from traditional version control systems is that it’s fully ditributed. In other words, there is no central repository and everyone can have a full clone of everything.
There are many articles and tutorials about GIT already. A while back, I also wrote a few articles on the Java APIs to the JGit implementation. This post is simply a collection of some commands that I use on daily basis. This is just for my quick reference or cheat sheet and nothing more. If you find it’s helpful, it’s great.
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# Set the user name so that no need to type it git config --global user.name "Steve Jin" # Set the author email address $ git config --global user.email email@example.com # Configure the default editor to be emacs. Another popular choice is vi or vim. git config --global core.editor emacs # Configure the template for commit message git config --global commit.template ~/.gitmessage.txt # Clone a repository $ git clone http://example.com/doublecloud/vijava.git # Create a new repository $ git init # Create a new branch "fix123" and check out from origin/master branch into it. $ git checkout -b fix123 origin/master # Switch from current branch to branch fix321 $ git checkout fix321 # Add all the changed file into staging. Alternatively, one or file paths can be added. $ git add . # Add one specific file named doublecloud.py into staging for later commit. More files can be added in one line. $ git add doublecloud.py # Check the current status of this branch: what's staged, what's changed but not staged $ git status # Commit the staged changes into repository $ git commit # Update the latest commit with new changes. The commit number will be different. $ git commit --amend # Show what is inside a commit $ git show 8f79c86c7b089d5583c653f1e879e41f2ff0084f # Fetch changes from remote $ git fetch # Rebase the current branch with its tracking branch, which should be done before push to remote. $ git rebase # Pull changes from remote and merge them. Not used as often as git fetch + git rebase $ git pull # Push the changes from local fix123 branch to the remote master branch git push origin fix123:master # Show the commit history of current branch git log # Show the commit history with one line for each commit $ git log --oneline # Show what's new in local branch fix123 that has not yet pushed to origin/master branch $ git log origin/master..fix123 # Show short version of git log $ git shortlog # List all the branches with # indicate the current branch $ git branch # List more info about branches with tracking branches $ git branch -vv # Set the tracking branch as origin/master for the branch fix123 $ git branch --set-upstream fix123 origin/master # Delete the branch fix123. Use -d switch for safer checking $ git branch -D fix123 # Edit the history of a few commits $ git rebase -i origin/master # Show the diff between working directory and HEAD $ git diff # Show the set of files changed in a commit $ git diff-tree --name-only -r HEAD # Show the diff of same file but different versions on two branches $ git diff branch1 branch2 -- doublecloud.py # Pick a specific commit and apply it on top of current branch $ git cherry-pick 259df0b6100b507df9c665128cff0159999d5b4c # Clean the current working directory. Remove --dry-run when you have doublechecked $ git clean -d -f --dry-run # Move a file or directory from one location to another $ git mv doublecloud.properties conf/ # Add a new tag called v1.0 $ git tag -a v1.0 -m 'First public release' # List tags $ git tag -l # Check out a tagged version v1.0 into a new branch $ git checkout -b fix1.0 v1.0 # See change history of a list per line. The 2nd shows only line 1 to 5. $ git blame <file-name> $ git blame -L 1,5 <file-name> # Remove un-tracked files $ git clean -f # Change the tracking branch to origin/master $ git branch --track [new_branch] origin/master # Combine last 2 commit - need to pick commands in editor $ git rebase -i HEAD~2